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Billenium

 

  1. Write a detailed synopsis of the story.


This story, called Billenium, is situated in the future. There is overpopulation and for this reason people are forced to live in small cubicles. The population density is too high, so the government limits the people’s living space. People are forced to create bonds and friendships with people living nearby, as the old friends live far away and it’s impossible to visit them. Family traditions and relations are weakened for the same reason. Money loses value as, and richness is represented by having land. Ward and rossiter were close friends who decided to live together so that they could have more than one cubicle. They discover a hidden room which allows them to have more space. They invite girls to the room, who later on invite their relatives. They end up having the same space as before. For this reason, they decide to remove the wardroom. This shows that billenium is a circular story, as they want to have more space but when they get it, they buy furniture which occupies room and invite more people.

 

  1. Discuss the theme of over-population and the effect it has on both the way of life and quality of life of the inhabitants of the city.

 

          The term ‘overpopulation’ explains the reality of that society which lives without space, that is to say that there are more people than place where to live. It is ironic the condition of getting more place since  to obtain it, you have to marry and have three children so that finally they give you an apartment with more place. However, not only the place increases but also the people, so the department ends up being small and oppressive due to the number of inhabitants inside.

 

  1. The quest for living space has become an overriding obsession with the people of the city. Discuss this theme in detail. Include in your answer some discussion of the ways in which Ballard makes the quest for space dominate the characters’ lives.

 

In “Billenium”, people’s most precious and valuable thing was space. They have a quest for living space. When Ward found a lot of space to live, he reduced it by sharing it with other people, as he used to live in a very little place.

  1. What sort of relationship does Ballard put forward between the inner world of the individual (as represented by Ward and Rossiter) and the outer world in which they live. In other words, how does Ballard conceptualise the effect of surviving daily life in a hopelessly over-crowded city on the consciousness of the individual as demonstrated by the ways in which Ward and Rossiter manage the gift of space in the secret room they discover?

 

Ballard creates similarities about the inner world of the individual and the outer one. In the outer worlds, it can be seen that people hate to live like this, as they can’t visit their relatives, go to have lunch and spent hours travelling. The government can solve over-population by imposing different measures but instead decides to solve over-population by encouraging people to have more kids. In the inner world, meaning the way in which Ward and Rossiter manage the gift of space, something similar happens. They hate living in small cubicles but luckily they find a secret room which has lots of space. Instead of enjoying it, they overpopulate ir and invite people to occupy it. Both events show that Billenium is a circular story which will eventually lead to the same spot, overpopulation.

  1. In the story, Ballard does attempt some sort of explanation of the social, political and economic causes of the extreme over-population that has beset the world. Explain his views as they are presented in the story.

Ballard does attempt some sort of explanation of the social, political and economic causes of the extreme overpopulation that has beset the world by explaining that the resposables of it was the government as they said that if you wanted to have a more spacious place, you had to have three children. So, this made the problem of overpopulation develop, as by the time, the population increased.

 

  1. Do you agree with his argument? Do you think that current population growth projections indicate that we are likely to end up in the situation portrayed in the story?

 

I do not think that people in the future will live in cubicles at all. This Is because there are many people in charge of having that issue under control. Moreover, there are many measures are being carried out to prevent what happened in the story “Billenium”.

  1. Describe and analyse Ward’s character in some detail. What values does he hold? Why does Ballard make use of this type of character as the main character for this story?

John Ward is the protagonist of the story and works at a library. He has a friend called Henry Rossiter and they both share a living space. Ward hates the government, the authority and the landlords, as they reduce their living space, and designate the slight cubicles in which people live. However, at the end, Ward ends up being the landlord who decides who should enter the room, what should be removed and how the space should be distributed. He becomes what he hated and Ballard chooses him as the protagonist to show this contrast.

 

  1. What role does Rossiter play in the story?

 

Rossiter is a close friend of the main character, Ward. However he is a more aggressive character as it is the one who persuades Ward to let their girlfriends into the spacious room, affecting also the girls families. Rossiter also sacrifices the Victorian wardrobe, a symbol of total beauty at that times.

  1. Describe the role of the female characters in the story.

There are two female characters in the story. They are called Judith and Helen. Their role in the tale was to bring their family to the cubicle that was found by their friends, Ward and Rossiter. As a consequence, the new space that was found was not beneficial to the protagonists and His friends although they had found it.

 

  1. Discuss the effects that overpopulation and its attendant ills has had on the nature of family life in relation to Ward’s family as well as Judith and Helen’s family relationships.

 

The effects of overpopulation caused people to have more kids, as they would have a bigger cubicle. However, by encouraging people to have kids and reproduce, you are not solving overpopulation but fomenting it’s growth. For this reason, the ills of overpopulation, cause people to have more space and have a family life to acquire more space. Despite this fact, the having of a family means the sharing of space between five, which again reduces the space and increases the population density. This again shows that Billenium is a circular story.  

  1. What does the secret room symbolise in the story?

 

  The secret room symbolises the urgent need of privacity. In addition it also represents the lack of freedom and therefore, of space.

  1. Why do you think Ward and Rossiter are unable to keep the gift of space to themselves? Is Ballard making a comment on how our inner world ultimately reflects the shape of the external world in which we live?

 

Ward and Rossiter were unable to keep the gift of space to themselves because they used to live in cubicles, so when they found the new “gigant” cubicle they had to share it. They couldn’t take advantage on the new place to live.

  1. What sort of living arrangement do they eventually end up allowing (and accommodating to) in their secret room?

Ward and Rossiter were willing to have more space so they moved together to a new place, where they find the secret room, which would bring them much more space. However, they invite people and people. First, some girls and then the girls’ relatives. In the end, they end up allowing the same or a worse sort of living arrangement. The large room was divided into seven people, so they ended up living in smaller cubicles. The finding of the room was non-sense and they wasted their chance of having a comfortable life, as they had adapted to a suffocating and uncomfortable sort of living arrangement.

  1. Discuss Ballard’s style and language in the story? Consider also in what ways it is appropriate to the nature of the story being told.

Ballard uses different writing techniques to emphasize and explain to the readers his point of view about the overpopulation. The author uses oxymoron and hyperbaton to refesrs and depict his feelings towards the society and the conditions in which they lived. All along the story  the word “cubicle” is named, emphasizing that that society was destined to live in an oppressive and extremely small place.

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The Berlin Blockade

In the History classes we have been studying and analyzing the Cold War, to deeply understand it, we individualy made a chart and awnsered different questions about the theme.

Here is my work:

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Video Casa Rosada

El viernes 15 de junio realizamos una visita a La Casa Rosada junto a nuestra profesora de Historia y Formacion Etica y Ciudadana, y con los alumnos de segundo año. Previamente a esta visita, nuestra profesora nos dividio en grupos y nos asigno desarrollar 3 preguntas acerca de la Casa Rosada y de los presidentes argentinos para poder asistir a la misma con más conocimiento sobre su historia. Para organizar estas preguntas, nos pidio que elaboremos una presentacion. Luego, debíamos hacer un video con fotos y grabaciones que nos hayan parecido interesantes durante el recorrido. Yo trabaje junto a Trinidad Porretti, Valentina Re, Sofía Mele y Francisco Aresi.

Presentación:

Video:

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Booktube

During this term we had to prepare a booktube of the book we choose to read.

This is my booktube

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Diary Entry

 

 Diary Entry

Dear diary, what has just happened is totally inexplicable. My husband has just died. I don’t know what to say, what to think and how to continue with my life. It was a completely unexpected news, which put into play several feelings and doubts I had about my relationship with him. I am immensely shocked and aghast.

 On the one hand, I feel extremely sorrowful and dismal either. I feel that he was a very important part of my life, it was my everyday companion, I don’t know if I can imagine my life without him. My husband’s death has been a very strong blow in my life, because at the beginning I could see a dark future for me, mournful, heartbroken and totally alone.

However, there is something in me, a new feeling that I had never experienced before. It is something like a feeling of freedom, liberation and relief. I don’t know why this is happening to me, if I loved him, but I’m realizing that if I feel this kind of things I am not completely sure if it was true love that I felt for him. It was a beautiful relationship, but I feel that at the same time it was somewhat oppressive, and that is why today I can feel extremely free

Well, dear diary, the truth is that I don’t know what to do, I have a mixture of feelings in my body that I can not explain and that is why I write here, to be able to put everything that happens to me in words to finally organize my head to be able to trespass this baffling and confusing situation.

 

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Poem About Plaza Francia

During Language and Literature classes, we worked on a dexricption about a touristic place here in Buenos Aires. After making it, we had to write a poem about that same place, based on our piece of text.

I worked with Luz Esteban and Bianca Ireaci.

Here is our description about Plaza Francia

Plaza Francia

Plaza Francia is a green space in the neighborhood of Recoleta, where the handicrafts fair takes place on weekends. It was designed by the famous landscaper Carlos Thays and his central monument, called “France to Argentina was a gift from the French community to the country, on the occasion of the Centennial of the May Revolution. The three allegorical figures of its middle part, are made of Carrara marble, representing Science, Industry, Agriculture and the Arts.

The park covers a wide and extensive area that leads you to different places such as the cemetery, the church of Our Lady of the Pillar and the Design shopping. It is a  hilly place with towering and elevated green palm trees all over the park.There is full benches for people to sit in every corner to rest below the sun and jogging tracks all around the edges of the park. Flower hedges and bushes grows all around Plaza Francia, making the park looking as an alluring, engaging and amusing place to spend a grandiose day with friends or with your family.   

More than 30 years ago the Artisan Fair of Plaza Francia was inaugurated. Actually, the name of the square is Presidente Alvear. On weekends and holidays, this canyon is filled with stalls where talented artisans offer their original creations.This square is the heart of the Recoleta neighborhood, its artisan fair is one of the most precious walks in the city. There converge street artists, craftsmen, tarotistas, tightrope walkers, plastic artists and musicians of all genres who offer their improvised free concerts. The porteños go massively when the sun accompanies them and spend their days there walking and lying on the grass enjoying the surroundings of the dazzling park.  We can say that it is a bohemian that contrasts with the distinction of the neighborhood and the gastronomic proposals of high level that surround it.

 All in all, we can say that the Plaza Francia is a meeting place, and a point of departure or arrival for those who want to enjoy the sun, the beauties of Recoleta, crafts and shows.

Here is our poem.

 

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El Corazón Delator

En la clase de Lengua, Carol, nuestra profesora, nos dio a elegir un par de cuentos de terror, el cual teníamos que acortar para que quede de una determinada duración, y luego grabarlo con sonidos, para mejorar el trabajo. Yo elegí “El Corazón Delator”, escrito por Edgar Alan Poe.

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Trailer: El Principe De La Niebla

Luego de terminar de leer “El Príncipe de la Niebla” nuestra profesora, Carol, nos asignó la tarea de realizar un trailer sobre el mismo libro, en grupos. Para realizar el trabajo, utilizamos la aplicación “I Movie” y luego un editor de videos. Yo trabajé con: Belén Brito Peret, Matías Ripoll y Juan Elia.

Este es nuestro trabajo:

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Trabajo Práctico de Educación Cívica

Luego de terminar de leer y analizar el Primer capítulo de nuestro libro de Formación Ética y Ciudadana, el cual hablaba sobre el Estado, realizamos una serie de preguntas que se encontraban en la página 23 del libro. Yo trabajé con Marcos Okecki.

Trabajo de Civica

1.

A.Falso, los términos estado y gobierno no son sinónimos ya que el Estado es la forma de organización jurídica y política de una comunidad. Este está compuesto por un territorio, una población y el poder. Mientras tanto, el gobierno son las instituciones encargadas de tomar las decisiones fundamentales sobre la vida en común a través de programas, planes, políticas y leyes.

 

  1. Verdadero. El territorio de un estado es considerado un espacio tridimensional ya que no incluye a un solo suelo, sino que también el subsuelo, los mares y el espacio aéreo.

 

  1. Verdadero, la centralización del poder en la organización del territorio es uno de los rasgos que caracterizó el proceso de conformación de estados modernos, junto a otros dos , los cuales son: la secularización y la creación de una burocracia.

 

  1. Verdadero. El proceso de formación de los estados modernos en América fue diferente al que tuvo lugar en europa. En américa durante los siglos xv y xviii el territorio estaba constituido por colonias  cuya organización política dependía de los imperios europeos de españa, portugal, gran bretaña, francia y Holanda. Las luchas que se llevaron adelante fueron el punto de partida para la conformación de los estados americanos.

 

  1. Falso. El Estado de derecho se caracteriza por varias cosas, como por ejemplo,  el ejercicio del poder político regulado por la ley y controlado por la justicia, la división de los poderes públicos, reconocimiento de derechos fundamentales y reconocimiento de la constitución como ley suprema. Es todo lo contrario a lo que dice la afirmación.estado de derecho se caracteriza por concentrar todas las decisiones.

 

  1. Verdadero. En los Estados federales coexisten diferentes ámbitos de gobierno, por ejemplo el federal, el estatal o provincial y el municipal. En nuestra región, Brasil, Venezuela, méxico y argentina son Estados federales.

 

  1. El estado de derecho es considerado el imperio de la ley debido a que el ejercicio del poder político está regulado por la ley y controlado por la justicia al mismo tiempo. Es decir que para tomar decisiones, las personas que ocupan cargos estatales deben guiarse por lo que determina la ley. Además el conjunto de leyes deben ser creadas por órganos representativos, que a través de mecanismos institucionales establecidos, expresan la voluntad de todos los ciudadanos. En nuestra opinión esto es muy importante ya que al momento de hablar de una democracia, que esté regida por diversas leyes, es fundamental para que sea limpia, sin fraudes y para todos los ciudadanos.

 

  1. A través de distintas instituciones como el ejército, la policía o la Gendarmería, el estado es el único autorizado a ejercer violencia física de manera legítima a caso de ser necesario. Tiene derecho a hacerlo si es necesario para resolver un conflicto.

 

  1. La nación es un término que sostiene que la misma es una comunidad construida socialmente, es decir, imaginada por las personas que se perciben a sí mismas como parte de este grupo.​ Es un conjunto de individuos y grupos que se sienten parte de una comunidad por razones culturales, históricas, económicas, entre otras. Para pertenecer a una nación, hay que sentir pertenencia a esta pero no hay ningún requisito ya que no son organizaciones establecidas.

 

  1. El régimen político está conformado por los marcos institucionales dentro de los cuales funciona la vida política, ya que por ejemplo las ideas sobre las que fundamentan la autoridad de los gobernantes y la obedecía de los gobernados, las normas y procedimientos institucionales que regulan la elección de las autoridades, la elección de las autoridades, la estructura que organiza el ejercicio del poder político y establece las relaciones entre diferentes órganos del Estado.

 

4.

Características Estado liberal Estado de bienestar Estado neoliberal
Época Siglo XIX Siglo XX Siglo XX
Contexto social y económico Utilizaban la forma política con la que se gestaron los estados nacionales a lo largo del siglo xix Despues de la segunda guerra mundial en paises capitalistas. Una crisis que afecto la economia y como consecuencias trajo el bienestar de muchos sectores sociales y la creencia de que el mercado podía controlar la oferta y la demanda Este tipo de Estado se crea a fines de la década de 1970, luego de crisis económicas que causan inflación y estancamiento en la economía mundial. En muchos países se empezaron a tomar medidas orientadas a  disminuir el gasto público, favorecer la desregulación de la economía y relaciones laborales con el fin de alentar la inversiones privadas.
Valores e ideales El estado debe dedicarse a la administración de justicia y elaboración de leyes que garanticen el derecho de vida, la propiedad privada y libertades de pensamiento. Igualdad de oportunidades, reducción de desigualdades democratización de distintos ámbitos en la vida y la extensión de la seguridad social. Se consideraba a la competencia como virtud esencial que incrementa eficiencia, productividad, calidad, reduce costos y elimina la pobreza.
Principales funciones Encargarse de defender el país frente a agresiones externas,mantener el orden público,garantizar seguridad en su territorio el estado debía tener un papel económico central distribuyendo inversiones en beneficios de la sociedad. Garantizando empleo y bienestar de cada ciudadano. Sus funciones principales eran asegurar el imperio de la ley, proteger el derecho de propiedad individual, fortalecer la competencia.
Estado frente derechos fundamentales el estado liberal protegía y promulgaba los derechos fundamentales civiles y políticos de los ciudadanos el estado  garantiza los derechos sociales y políticos y los económicos sociales que consisten en salud, educación, vivienda y seguridad. El estado creó marcos jurídicos, los cuales fortalecían el desarrollo

 

Estado frente la economía este no intervenía en la economía y la reconocía como un ámbito privado, el estado tampoco intervenía en la relaciones mercantiles. Se reconocen expresamente unos derechos y libertades de los ciudadanos con plenas garantías jurídicas. Estos marcos jurídicos permitían establecer condiciones optimas para el desarrollo de la competencia en los diferentes ambitos de la vida social y económica.

 

  1. La gestión integral de residuos sólidos (GIRS) debe considerarse una disciplina asociada a la generación, almacenamiento, recolección, transferencia y/o transporte y disposición final de los residuos sólidos, para su correcto control, y en armonía con principios económicos, de higiene y salud pública, de ingeniería y de las correspondientes consideraciones ambientales para responder adecuadamente a las expectativas públicas.  La gestión de los residuos sólidos conlleva a diversas problemáticas, tanto sea a nivel global como lo son la tendencia demográfica creciente, aumento en la generación per cápita, requerimientos de espacio físico, tecnológicos y presupuestarios para una correcta gestión como en lo que respecta a la realidad latinoamericana y puntualmente de Argentina. La GIRS presenta actuales problemáticas que, proyectadas al futuro, requieren la toma de acciones en el corto plazo. En este sentido, se requiere un conocimiento cabal del estado de situación relativo a la gestión de RSU en todo el país, principalmente en las grandes urbes, sobre el cual desarrollar programas que contemplen desde cambios normativos, análisis de factibilidad y desarrollo de proyectos. En esa línea de acción la Secretaría de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable (SAyDS), dependiente del Ministerio de Salud y Ambiente de la Nación, ha diseñado en el año 2005 la Estrategia Nacional de Residuos Sólidos Urbanos (ENGIRSU). Esta estrategia es considerada como el inicio del desarrollo en Argentina de la Gestión Integral de RSU, que, según lo expresado por la propia secretaría deberá ser actualizada y perfeccionada periódicamente, en intervalos de tiempo no mayores de cinco años, dentro del marco de mejora continua, con la intervención de los actores involucrados y de acuerdo con los distintos escenarios que proporciona el amplio territorio nacional. La SAyDS considera que dicha estrategia en el conjunto de medidas que tienden a implementar un Sistema de Gestión Integral de RSU en el territorio nacional. El fin es contribuir al mejoramiento de la salud de la población y la preservación del ambiente.

 

  1. los ocupantes de un territorio determinado o los hablantes de un lenguaje dado llegan a ser una nación siempre y cuando los miembros de la categoría se reconozcan ciertos derechos y deberes de su común calidad de miembros. Esto quiere decir que una nación está conformada por un territorio, del cual sus ocupantes comparten rasgos culturales, historias, creencias y un lenguaje común. En la Argentina sucede esto, así que puede ser considerada una nación. Sin embargo, hay comunidades en nuestro que reclaman su reconocimiento. Por ejemplo, Los Mapuches.
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